Sefarad, Vol 75, No 2 (2015)

Due ritratti della moglie di Giobbe (Gb 2,9-10)


https://doi.org/10.3989/sefarad.015.007

Giancarlo Toloni
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Brescia, Italia

Resumen


Tampoco la mujer de Job (Job 2,9-10), como sucede con otros personajes menores de las historias de la Biblia hebrea, juega un papel insignificante en la historia de su marido, sino que es relevante para entender mejor la intención del autor. En la interpretación tradicional, principalmente basada en el Texto Masorético (TM), ella estaba encuadrada dentro de un esquema que le atraía el juicio negativo de la crítica, fruto tal vez de una visión misógina de matriz judeo-helenística, y aparecía como hostil a Job, el justo sufridor, por la aversión a la fe incondicional de este. Ahora queremos revisar aquí esta controvertida figura, primero de todo a la luz de los testimonios de las dos ramas de la tradición textual hebrea (TM) y griega (Old Greek = OG). En el primer caso, las palabras de la mujer de Job suenan como una invitación a su marido a maldecir a Dios, como responsable de sus injustos sufrimientos; en el segundo, sin embargo, se muestran como una exhortación a proclamar ante Dios su dolor inocente, aun a costa de ser castigado con la muerte. Encontramos así dos retratos diferentes, si no opuestos, de la mujer de Job, cuyo papel en la historia de Job se define negativa o positi¬vamente según el arquetipo presupuesto.

Palabras clave


Job; la mujer de Job; retratos; Texto Masorético; Old Greek; misoginia

Texto completo:


PDF

Referencias


Adriaen, Marc, ed. (1979): Moralia in Iob Libri I-X (Corpus Christianorum Series Latina [CCSL] 143; Turnholti: Brepols).

Alonso Schökel, Luis (2013): Dizionario di ebraico biblico (Cinisello Balsamo: San Paolo).

Bauer, Johannes Baptist, ed. (1969): Sermo ad catechumenos de symbolo, in Michael Petrus Josephus Van Den Hout et al. (eds.), De fide rerum invisibilium; Enchiridion ad Laurentium de fide et spe et caritate; De catechizandis rudibus… (Corpus Christianorum Series Latina [CCSL] 46; Turnholti: Brepols) p. 193.

Blank, Sheldon H. (1950-51): «The Curse, the Blasphemy, the Spell, the Oath», Hebrew Union College Annual 23, 73-95.

Broc, Catherine (2001): «La femme de Job dans la prédication de Jean Chrysostome», Studia Patristica 37, 396-403.

Ca-as Reillo, José Manuel (2013): «Libro de Job», in Natalio Fernandez Marcos e M.ª Victoria Spottorno Diaz-caro (eds.), La Biblia Griega. Septuaginta, III: Libros poéticos y sapienciales (Salamanca: Sígueme).

Cheney, Michael (1994): Dust, Wind, and Agony: Character, Speech, and Genre in Job (Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell).

Clines, David J. A. (1989): Job 1-20 (Dallas, TX: Thomas Nelson, 1989).

Clines, David J. A. (1993-2011): The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 8 vols.).

Cook, Johann (1992): «Aspects of Wisdom in the Texts of Job (Chapter 28) - Vorlage(n) and/or Translator(s)», Old Testament Essays, N.S. 5, 26-45.

Cook, Johann (2010): «Are the Additions in LXX Job 2,9a-e to be deemed as the Old Greek text?», Biblica 91, 275-284.

Cox, Claude E. (1986): «Methodological Issues in the Exegesis of LXX Job», in Claude E. Cox (ed.), VI Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (Jerusalem: Scholars Press) pp. 78-89.

Dekkers, Eligius e Johannes Fraipont, eds. (1990): Enarrationes in Psalmos LI-C (Corpus Christianorum Series Latina [CCSL] 39 [2ª ed., Turnholti: Brepols]).

Dhorme, Edouard (1984): A Commentary on the Book of Job (Nashville, TN: Nelson).

Dhorme, Paul (1926): Le livre de Job (2ª ed., Paris: Gabalda).

Díez Merino, Luis, ed. (1984): Targum de Job. Edición Principe del Ms. Villa-Amil n. 5 de Alfonso de Zamora (Madrid: CSIC).

Driver, Samuel Rolles e George Buchanan Gray (1921): The Book of Job (Edinburgh: T&T Clark).

Fernández Marcos, Natalio (1994): «The Septuagint Reading of the Book of Job», in Willem André Maria Beuken (ed.), The Book of Job (Leuven: Leuven University Press) pp. 251-266.

Fernández Marcos, Natalio (2000). Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible (Boston-Leiden: Brill; rist. 2001).

Fokkelman, Jan P. (2012): The Book of Job in Form: A Literary Translation with Commentary (Leiden: Brill).

Funari, Pedro Paulo A. (2010): «Mulheres na Bíblia Hebraica», in E. Serra Braga (ed.), Santas e Sedutoras, as heroinas na Bíblia Hebraica (São Paulo: Humanitas e Fapesp) vol. I pp. 11-13.

Gentry, Peter John (1995): The Asterisked Materials in the Greek Job (Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature).

Gerlemann, Gillis, ed. (1997): «Iob», in Karl Elliger e Wilhelm Rudolph (eds.), Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia… (5ª ed., Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft) pp. 1227-1274.

Good, Edwin M. (1990): In Turns of Tempest: A Reading of Job (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).

Gravett, Emily O. (2012): «Biblical Response: Past and Present Retellings of the Enigmatic Mrs. Job», Biblical Interpretation 20, 97-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156851512X618560

Gray, George Buchanan (1920): «The Additions in the Ancient Greek Version of Job», The Expositor 19, 422-438.

Gross, Heinrich (2002): Giobbe (Brescia: Morcelliana, 2002).

Habel, Norman C. (1985): The Book of Job: A Commentary (Philadelphia: Westminster John Knox Press).

Heater, Homer (1982): A Septuagint Translation Tecnique in the Book of Job (Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Ass.).

Ioannes Calvinus, In Librum Jobi Conciones IX. Cf. Johannis Calvini in Librum Jobi Conciones. Cum Praefatione Theodori Bezae (Genevae 1593).

Kepper, Martina e Markus Witte (2009): Job. Das Buch Ijob (Hiob) in Wolfang Kraus e Martin Karrer (eds.), Septuaginta Deutsch. Das griechische Alte Testament in deutscher Übersetzung (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft) pp. 1007-1056.

Kaiser, Gerhard e Hans-Peter Mathys (2015): Il libro di Giobbe (Brescia: Paideia).

Koehler, Ludwig e Walter Baumgartner (1967): Hebräisches und aramäisches Lexikon zum Alten Testament (3ª ed., Leiden: Brill).

Longman III, Tremper (2012): Job (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House).

Low, Katherine (2013): The Bible, Gender and Reception History: The Case of Job's Wife (London-New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark).

Lust, Johan, Erik Eynikel e Katrin Hauspie (ed.), Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Revised Edition, vol. unico (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft).

Magdalene, F. Rachel (2006): «Job's Wife as Hero: A Feminist-Forensic Reading of the Book of Job», Biblical Interpretation 14, 209-258.

Maier, Christl e Silvia Schroer (2012): «Job: Questioning the Book of the Righteous Sufferer», in Luise Schottroff, Marie-Theres Wacker e Martin Rumscheidt (eds.), Feminist Biblical Interpretation: A Compendium of Critical Commentary on the Books of the Bible and Related Literature (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans) pp. 221-239.

Mangan, Celine (1994): «The Interpretation of Job in the Targums», in Willem André Maria Beuken (ed.), The Book of Job (Leuven: Leuven University Press) pp. 267-279.

Mangan, Celine (1996): «The Attitude to Women in the Prologue of Targum Job», in Kevin J. Cathcart e Michael Maher (eds.), Targumic and Cognate Studies: Essays in Honour of Martin McNamara (Sheffield: Bloomsbury T&T Clark) pp. 1-110.

Mangan, Céline (2002):«Blessing and Cursing in the Prologue of Targum Job», in Paul V. M. Flesher (ed.), Targum and Scripture: Studies in Aramaic Translation and Interpretation in Memory of Ernest G. Clarke (Leiden: Brill) pp. 225-229.

Nepi, Antonio (2015): Dal fondale alla ribalta. I personaggi secondari nella Bibbia ebraica. Presentazione di Jean-Louis Ska (Bologna: EDB).

Das Neves, Natalino e Luiz Alexandre Solano Rossi (2011): «A mulher de Jó, um grito de protesto: uma releitura do livro de Jó sob a perspectiva da teologia feminista», Estudos Teológicos 51, 116-126.

Newsom, Carol A. (2003): The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations (New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

O'connor, Donal J. (1995): Job, His Wife, His Friends and His God (Dublin: Columba Press).

Orlinsky, Harry M. (1957): «Studies in the LXX of the Books of Job, I: An Analytical Survey of Previous Studies», Hebrew Union College Annual 28, 53-74.

Orlinsky, Harry M. (1958): «Studies in the LXX of the Books of Job, II: The Character of the LXX Translation», Hebrew Union College Annual 29, 229-271.

Orlinsky,Harry M. (1959-61): «Studies in the LXX of the Books of Job, III: On the Matter of Anthropomorphism», Hebrew Union College Annual 30, 153-167, e 32, 239-268.

Orlinsky,Harry M. (1962): «Studies in the LXX of the Books of Job, IV: The Present State of the Greek Text of Job», Hebrew Union College Annual 33, 119-151.

Orlinsky, Harry M. (1964-65): «Studies in the LXX of the Books of Job, V: The Hebrew Vorlage of the LXX of Job: The Text and the Script», Hebrew Union College Annual 35, 57-78, e 36, 37-47.

Peleanu, Adina, ed. (2013): Jean Chrysostome, Homélies sur l'impuissance du diable (Sources Chrétiennens 560; Paris: Éditions du cerf).

Pietersma, Albert e Benjamin G. Wright, eds. (2007): A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under That Title (NETS) (New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp. 667-696.

Pope, Marvin H. (1974): Job: Introduction, Translation, and Notes (3ª ed., 2ª rist., Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company).

Radermakers, Jean (1999): Il libro di Giobbe. Dio, l'uomo e la sapienza (Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane).

Ravasi, Gianfranco (1984): Giobbe. Traduzione e commento (2ª ed., Roma: Borla).

Sale, George (1889): The Koran (London: Frederick Warne).

Sancti Thomae de Aquino Opera omnia iussu impensaque Leonis XIII P.M. edita, Tomus XXVI: Expositio super Iob ad litteram, ed. Antoine Dondaine (Romae 1965) s. pp. (in formato elettronico).

Scharbert, Josef (1988): ___, ________, in Alessandro Catastini e Riccardo Contini (eds.), Grande Lessico dell'Antico Testamento (Brescia: Paideia; ed. orig. G. Johannes Botterweck e Helmer Ringgren [eds.], Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament [Stuttgart 1973] vol. I) vol. I pp. 1645-1712.

Seow, Choong Leong (2007): «Job's Wife, with Due Respect», in Thomas Krüger, Manfred Oeming, Konrad Schmid e Christoph Uehlinger (eds.), Das Buch Hiob und seine Interpretationen. Beiträge zum Hiob-Symposium auf dem Monte Verità (Zürich: Theologischer Verlag Zürich) pp. 351-373.

Seow, Choong Leong (2013): Job 1-21: Interpretation and Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Siegert, Folker (2001): Zwischen Hebräischer Bibel und Altem Testament. Eine Einführung in die Septuaginta (Münster: Lit).

Stemberger, Günter (1995): Introduzione al Talmud e al Midrash (Roma: Città Nuova Editrice).

Theodor, Julius e Chanoch Albeck, eds. (1965): Midrash Bereshit Rabba: Critical Edition with Notes and Commentary (3 vols. Jerusalem: Wahrmann).

Thomas Aquinas. The Literal Exposition on Job: A Scriptural Commentary Concerning Providence Translated by Anthony Damico and Interpretive Essay and Notes by Martin D. Yaffe (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989).

Toloni, Giancarlo (2009): La sofferenza del giusto. Giobbe e Tobia a confronto (Brescia: Paideia).

Trebolle [Barrera], Julio e Susana Pottecher (2011): Job (Madrid: Trotta).

Vattioni, Francesco (1996): Per il testo di Giobbe (Napoli: Instituto universitario orientale).

Vermeylen, Jacques (1986): Job, ses amis et son Dieu. La légende de Job et ses relectures postexiliques (Leiden: Brill).

Vogels, Walter (1994): «Job's Empty Pious Slogans (Job 1,20-22; 2,8-10)», in Willem André Maria Beuken (ed.), The Book of Job (Leuven: Leuven University Press) pp. 369-376.

Walton, Brian, ed. (1964): Biblia Sacra Polyglotta (Graz: Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt [rist. Londini 1657]).

Weiser, Artur (2003): Giobbe. Traduzione e commento (2ª ed., Brescia: Paideia).

Weiss, Meir (1983): The Story of Job's Beginning: Job 1-2, A Literary Analysis (Jerusalem: Publications of the Perry Foundation for Biblical Research in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Witte, Markus (2007): «The Greek Book of Job», in Thomas Krüger, Manfred Oeming, Konrad Schmid e Christoph Uehlinger (eds.), Das Buch Hiob und seine Interpretationen. Beiträge zum Hiob-Symposium auf dem Monte Verità (Zürich: Theologischer Verlag Zürich) pp. 36-41.

Van Wolde, Ellen (1995): «The Development of Job: Mrs. Job as Catalyst», in Athalya Brenner (ed.), Feminist Companion to Wisdom Literature (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press) pp. 201-221.

Zerwick, Max (1966): Grecitas biblica Novi Testamenti exemplis illustratur (5ª ed., Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico).

Ziegler, Joseph, ed. (1982): Septuaginta. Vetus Testamentum Graecum Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht).




Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista sefarad.cchs@cchs.csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es