Sefarad, Vol 79, No 2 (2019)

El desarrollo de la literatura religiosa no elitista en la España medieval tardía y su reflejo en el Menorat ha-Maor de Rabbi Isaac Aboab


https://doi.org/10.3989/sefarad.019-012

Yoel Marciano
Ariel University, Israel
orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0281-7893

Resumen


Las obras rabínicas escritas en la Península Ibérica hasta finales del siglo XIII se caracterizaron por una tendencia elitista, manifestada por los eruditos de diferentes orientaciones religiosas. Ellos dirigían sus obras a la clase de élite cuyos miembros fueron sabios o eruditos. A partir del siglo XIV aconteció un cambio decisivo en la actividad literal rabínica en España. Los autores comenzaron a confeccionar libros con carácter no elitista destinados para la ilustración de dos grupos notables: El público judío no-rabínico que tenía conocimientos limitados de la ley y la sabiduría rabínica (pero fue capaz de leer la Torá y utilizar la lengua hebrea); estudiantes en el comienzo de su carrera rabínica. La primera parte del artículo describe la extensión del fenómeno y los caracteres en que esta fue manifestada entre los judíos en los siglos XIV y XV en España y entre los exiliados después de la expulsión de España. La segunda parte presenta el fenómeno como se refleja en el Menorat ha-Maor de R. Isaac Aboab. El estudio del libro y sus características permite una mejor comprensión de los antecedentes y el desarrollo del fenómeno desde un punto de vista social y religioso. Esta parte del artículo aborda diferentes aspectos, como la brecha entre la literatura disponible y las exigencias sociales, los diferentes usos y abusos del sermón en la sociedad, la necesidad de formar predicadores de la literatura auxiliar y, por último, los aspectos didácticos de la literatura judía al final de la Edad Media.

Palabras clave


Literatura religiosa, sermon; literatura ética; literatura homilética; literatura didáctica; métodos de enseñanza; educación; España a finales de la Edad Media

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Referencias


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