Sefarad, Vol 79, No 1 (2019)

Autores, objetivos y versiones del Iguéret ha-Šabat de Ibn Ezra, una polémica acerca de herejías calendáricas


https://doi.org/10.3989/sefarad.019-003

Leor Jacobi
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7670-3197

Resumen


El Iguéret ha-Šabat del rabino Abraham ibn Ezra es un breve trabajo polémico de apenas tres capítulos, que trata de las herejías calendáricas. En el prólogo se describen las fantásticas circunstancias que rodearon su composición, pues el šabat se le apareció a Ibn Ezra en un sueño y, por medio de un poético lamento, le amonestó por haber contribuido a la herética desacralización del šabat. Han corrido ríos de tinta acerca de si el trabajo herético rebatido es el Comentario de R. Samuel ben Meir (Rašbam). En este artículo se revisan todas las publicaciones que hay sobre el tema, y se presta atención especial al estudio seminal de Samuel Poznański, publicado en 1897, en el que se identifica la herejía con la oscura secta mishawita. Por primera vez, se pone de relieve la importancia del manuscrito más antiguo, el copiado en Lérida en 1382, que constituye la base de la poco conocida edición de 1840. La autenticidad del prólogo fantástico –publicado previamente y de manera aislada en varios volúmenes rabínicos– había sido puesta en duda durante el siglo XVIII. En apéndice se analiza el manuscrito que Samuel David Luzzatto (Šadal) corrigió mientras preparaba su edición. Una nota inédita recoge un responsum de R. Hai Gaon, que parafrasearon Ibn Ezra o sus discípulos en dos obras diferentes, referente a las supersticiones tecufot y a las fuerzas mágicas asociadas a los solsticios y equinocios.

Palabras clave


Abraham ibn Ezra; caraítas; calendario judío; mišahuitas; Samuel David Luzzatto

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